Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Buffer Definition - Chemistry and Biology

Buffer Definition - Chemistry and Biology A buffer is a  solution containing either a weak acid and its salt or a weak base and its salt, which is resistant to changes in pH. In other words, a buffer is an aqueous solution of either a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. A buffer may also be called a pH buffer, hydrogen ion buffer, or buffer solution. Buffers are used to maintain a stable pH in a solution, as they can neutralize small quantities of additional acid of base. For a given buffer solution, there is a working pH range and a set amount of acid or base that can be neutralized before the pH will change.  The amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer before changing its pH is called its buffer capacity.   The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation may be used to gauge the approximate pH of a buffer.  In order to use the equation, the initial concentration or stoichiometric concentration is entered instead of the equilibrium concentration. The general form of a buffer chemical reaction is: HA â‡Å' H   A− Examples of Buffers blood - contains a bicarbonate buffer systemTRIS bufferphosphate buffer As stated, buffers are useful over specific pH ranges. For example, here is the pH range of common buffering agents: Buffer pKa pH range citric acid 3.13., 4.76, 6.40 2.1 to 7.4 acetic acid 4.8 3.8 to 5.8 KH2PO4 7.2 6.2 to 8.2 borate 9.24 8.25 to 10.25 CHES 9.3 8.3 to 10.3 When a buffer solution is prepared, the pH of the solution is adjusted to get it within the correct effective range. Typically a strong acid, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) is added to lower the pH of acidic buffers. A strong base, such as sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH), is added to raise the pH of alkaline buffers. How Buffers Work In order to understand how a buffer works, consider the example of a buffer solution made by dissolving sodium acetate into acetic acid. Acetic acid is (as you can tell from the name) an acid: CH3COOH, while the sodium acetate dissociates in solution to yield the conjugate base, acetate ions of CH3COO-. The equation for the reaction is: CH3COOH(aq) OH-(aq) ⇆ CH3COO-(aq) H2O(aq) If a strong acid is added to this solution, the acetate ion neutralizes it: CH3COO-(aq) H(aq) ⇆ CH3COOH(aq) This shifts the equilibrium of the initial buffer reaction, keeping the pH stable. A strong base, on the other hand, would react with the acetic acid. Universal Buffers Most buffers work over a relative narrow pH range. An exception is citric acid because it has three pKa values. When a compound has multiple pKa values, a larger pH range becomes available for a buffer. Its also possible to combine buffers, providing their pKa values are close (differing by 2 or less), and adjusting the pH with strong base or acid to reach the required range. For example, McIvaines buffer is prepared by combining mixtures of Na2PO4 and citric acid. Depending on the ratio between the compounds, the buffer may be effective from pH 3.0 to 8.0. A mixture of citric acid, boric acid, monopotassium phosphate, and diethyl barbituic acid can cover the pH range from 2.6 to 12! Buffer Key Takeaways A buffer is an aqueous solution used to keep the pH of a solution nearly constant.A buffer consists of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid.Buffer capacity is the amount of acid or base that can be added before the pH of a buffer changes.An example of a buffer solution is bicarbonate in blood, which maintains the bodys internal pH. Sources Butler, J. N. (1964).  Ionic Equilibrium: A Mathematical Approach. Addison-Wesley. p.  151.Carmody, Walter R. (1961). Easily prepared wide range buffer series. J. Chem. Educ. 38 (11): 559–560. doi:10.1021/ed038p559Hulanicki, A. (1987). Reactions of acids and bases in analytical chemistry. Translated by Masson, Mary R. Horwood. ISBN 0-85312-330-6.Mendham, J.; Denny, R. C.; Barnes, J. D.; Thomas, M. (2000). Appendix 5. Vogels Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis (5th ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-582-22628-7.Scorpio, R. (2000). Fundamentals of Acids, Bases, Buffers Their Application to Biochemical Systems. ISBN 0-7872-7374-0.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

New York State Unit Study - Geography, State Symbols Facts

New York State Unit Study - Geography, State Symbols Facts These state unit studies are designed to help children learn the geography of the United States and learn factual information about every state. These studies are great for children in the public and private education system as well as homeschooled children. Print the United States Map and color each state as you study it. Keep map at the front of your notebook for use with each state. Print the State Information Sheet and fill in the information as you find it. Print the New York State Outline Map and fill in the state capital, large cities and state attractions that you find. Answer the following questions on lined paper in complete sentences. State Capital What is the capital?Virtual Tour of the State CapitolState Flag What is Justice holding and what do they represent?Flag Quiz/PrintoutState Flower When was the state flower officially adopted?State Fruit When was the state fruit adopted?State Bird When do these birds return north?State Animal What is the state animal?State Fish Where are these fish found?State Insect How does this insect help gardeners?State Fossil What crab is this fossil related to?State Shell How do these scallops swim?State Tree When was the state tree adopted?State Gem What color is this gem?State Song Who wrote the state song?State Seal When was the current seal created?State Motto What is the state motto and what does it mean?State Muffin Make this state muffin and enjoy with the state beverage!State Beverage What is the state beverage? New York Printable Pages - Learn more about New York with these printable worksheets and coloring pages. Fun in the Kitchen - The official muffin of New York State, the Apple Muffin, was created by elementary school children in North Syracuse, New York. Try their official recipe. Presidents born in New York: Theodore RooseveltFranklin Delano Roosevelt History - Learn about the history of New York. Big Apple Factoids - A New York Matching Game - be sure to read the facts after you find the match! New York Underground - New Yorkers go about unaware of what is happening just beneath their feet: Power pulses, information flies, and steam flows. Go on this virtual field trip underground! Niagara: The Story of the Falls - Take a journey down the perilous Niagara River, play the daredevil trivia adventure, explore the timeline of falls firsts, and discover surprising stories in snapshots of the falls. Empire State Building - Find fun facts, go on a photo tour, and play some games. The Chrysler Building - Pictures of this New York City skyscraper. Word Search - Find the hidden New York related words. Coloring Book - Print and color these pictures of the New York state symbols. Fun Facts - What is the states longest river? Read these fun New York facts and find out. Capitol Minutes - Short audio presentation of historical and educational interest. Buck Mountain - Take a virtual hike up Buck Mountain. Crossword Puzzle - Can you solve the crossword puzzle? Word Find - Find the hidden New York State Regions. Word Scramble - Can you unscramble these New York State symbols? Odd New York Law: It used to be illegal to ring the doorbell and disturb the occupant of a house.

Friday, February 14, 2020

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT 4 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

INDIVIDUAL 4 - Assignment Example ly with the source or directly with the customer as opposed to prior models of integration that focused almost exclusively on middle men and the roles of corporate meet and greets with the representative shareholders within the process. In much the same way, things similar to webinars have the capacity to drastically reshape the landscape of traditional sales channels. Although this may seem as a bit of a bold statement, the fact of the matter is that something like a webinar is exponentially cheaper than flying company representatives to a given location, catering a meal, and providing hotel accommodations for the shareholders while there (LaGarde & Whitehead 4). As a function of this factor, along with many others that have not been mentioned, the company, firm, or organization is able to integrate with a far higher level of potential clientele and at a far cheaper rate. This necessarily compounds the percentage likelihood that the firm’s endeavors will result in an overall increase in the bottom line; thereby benefiting the profitability and the business model of the firm in

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Refugee protection in International Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Refugee protection in International Law - Essay Example The essays together give a broad overview of the dimensions of refugee protection, especially setting out to what extent and how refugee protection is at present grounded in international law. It also points out the paradox that despite an emerging ‘theory of race’ that stipulates that race is not biological, in order to achieve protection, membership of a certain group, and thus race, has once again to be established – often based on biological criteria.The publication will be particularly helpful because of the breadth of its cover and also due to the legal aspects that are covered. When looking at the question of refugees, it is often unclear what means are legally open to people who are fleeing their country and how effective these avenues may be. There is often evidence that refugee-seekers are not following established pathways, with blame often attached to these people as ‘not genuine’ or as ‘queue-jumpers’.... The Editor in Chief is Professor Edward Craig and the source has become an essential research tool for university faculties and students alike. The definition sought from this source was that of ‘theory of race’, for which an entry by Michael Banton was available. In his article, he argues that race is not pure , as stipulated by Cuvier, nor does it develop over time, as Darwin suggested. Both these views mark racial discrimination as an integral part of race. Banton argues instead that racial discrimination is ‘learned’ and that race does not constitute ‘genetic or social’ difference and that there is no biological evidence that such a distinction exists in nature. For his summation, he draws on the findings of scientists as well as social scientists, including Freud, Linden, Martin and Jupp). At the outset of research into ‘races’ it is vital to understand what is meant by this term, as the word ‘race’ has been and st ill is used in a multitude of ways and understanding (including my own) has been quite ambiguous. It is startling to find to what extent we are taking for grated that ‘race’ is a fact and to what degree the ‘certainty’ of belonging to a race pervades communication. Refocusing this issue is therefore of paramount importance before writing about it. From this new perspective, it is possible to approach the task of ‘races and refugees’ with a deeper understanding of the problems of identification that exist in the home countries of those who flee. Suhrke, Astri. â€Å"Human security and the protection of refugees†, in Edward Newman and Joanne van Selm (eds.), Refugees and Forced Displacement: International

Friday, January 24, 2020

William Faulkner, the Ambitious Writer :: Biography Biographies Essays

William Faulkner, the Ambitious Writer From early as the slave days in the southern states, males have shown an ambitious desire not only to make a living for them but also to gain their riches from the hardwork of others. For thousands of years southern males dominated over individuals who they deemed were animals stripping them of all their human rights to provide themselves with a better life. This ambitious desire to provide shelter, food, and clothing for their family and themselves led to the ultimate destruction of another race. While viewing the film â€Å"Faulkner† I saw Faulkner ambitious nature prominently in his career goal. After struggling like many Americans to make a living and support himself Faulkner tries unsuccessfully at first to become a well renowned writer. Although Faulkner dream to become a writer took many years to become finalized he remained determined to succeed. For example, as a beginner writer Faulkner discovered that he lacked a particular writing style that would set his literatur e apart from his other colleagues. So he began studying all types of literature written by other authors to discover his own voice. Another way in which Faulkner tried to discover untapped literary ideas was to observe the everyday actions of others and notice within their interactions with others a story line that could possibly capture the attention of readers. After writing for many years Faulkner tried to seek the publication of his very first novel â€Å"Sanctuary†. The novel â€Å" Sanctuary† proved not to be very interesting to publishers who read the novel since it mainly reflected the ideas and writing styles of prominently famous authors whose works of literature were widely read throughout the world. But Faulkner never gave up as he continued to write and receive rejection letters by publishers. Although rejection seemed to be the fuel that pushed Faulkner to not only give up on his dream but to become more creative and focus on the background information he was familiar with. Shortly after Faulkner did succeed in getting his literature published he reunited with his one and only true love and married her. Upon marrying Faulkner came to the realization that he lacked the financial income to support his family and his desire for his literature to be published increased tenfold. In his efforts to become a more recognized and well-known writer such as Hemmingway Faulkner began to travel to other countries.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Frankenstein Summary Essay

Frankenstein opens with a preface, signed by Mary Shelley but commonly supposed to have been written by her husband, Percy Bysshe Shelley. It states that the novel was begun during a summer vacation in the Swiss Alps, when unseasonably rainy weather and nights spent reading German ghost stories inspired the author and her literary companions to engage in a ghost story writing contest, of which this work is the only completed product. Summary: Letter 1 The novel itself begins with a series of letters from the explorer Robert Walton to his sister, Margaret Saville. Walton, a well-to-do Englishman with a passion for seafaring, is the captain of a ship headed on a dangerous voyage to the North Pole. In the first letter, he tells his sister of the preparations leading up to his departure and of the desire burning in him to accomplish â€Å"some great purpose†Ã¢â‚¬â€discovering a northern passage to the Pacific, revealing the source of the Earth’s magnetism, or simply setting foot on undiscovered territory. Summary: Letters 2–3 In the second letter, Walton bemoans his lack of friends. He feels lonely and isolated, too sophisticated to find comfort in his shipmates and too uneducated to find a sensitive soul with whom to share his dreams. In the brief third letter, Walton tells his sister that his ship has set sail and that he has full confidence that he will achieve his aim. Summary: Letter 4 In the fourth letter, the ship stalls between huge sheets of ice, and Walton and his men spot a sledge guided by a gigantic creature about half a mile away. The next morning, they encounter another sledge stranded on an ice floe. All but one of the dogs drawing the sledge is dead, and the man on the sledge—not the man seen the night before—is emaciated, weak, and starving. Despite his condition, the man refuses to board the ship until Walton tells him that it is heading north. The stranger spends two days recovering, nursed by the crew, before he can speak. The crew is burning with curiosity, but Walton, aware of the man’s still-fragile state, prevents his men from burdening the stranger with questions. As time passes, Walton and the stranger become friends, and the stranger eventually consents to tell Walton his story. At the end of the fourth letter, Walton states that the visitor will commence his narrative the next day; Walton’s framing narrative ends and the stranger’s begins. Summary: Chapter 1 The stranger, who the reader soon learns is Victor Frankenstein, begins his narration. He starts with his family background, birth, and early childhood, telling Walton about his father, Alphonse, and his mother, Caroline. Alphonse became Caroline’s protector when her father died in poverty. They married two years later, and Victor was born soon after. Frankenstein then describes how his childhood companion, Elizabeth Lavenza, entered his family. Elizabeth was discovered by his mother, Caroline, on a trip to Italy, when Victor is about five years old. While visiting a poor Italian family, Caroline notices a beautiful blonde girl among the dark-haired Italian children; upon discovering that Elizabeth is the orphaned daughter of a Milanese nobleman and a German woman and that the Italian family can barely afford to feed her, Caroline adopts Elizabeth and brings her back to Geneva. Victor’s mother decides at the moment of the adoption that Elizabeth and Victor should someda y marry. Summary: Chapter 2 Elizabeth and Victor grow up together as best friends. Victor’s friendship with Henry Clerval, a schoolmate and only child, flourishes as well, and he spends his childhood happily surrounded by this close domestic circle. As a teenager, Victor becomes increasingly fascinated by the mysteries of the natural world. He chances upon a book by Cornelius Agrippa, a sixteenth-century scholar of the occult sciences, and becomes interested in natural philosophy. He studies the outdated findings of the alchemists Agrippa, Paracelsus, and Albertus Magnus with enthusiasm. He witnesses the destructive power of nature when, during a raging storm, lightning destroys a tree near his house. A modern natural philosopher accompanying the Frankenstein family explains to Victor the workings of electricity, making the ideas of the alchemists seem outdated and worthless. Summary: Chapter 3 At the age of seventeen, Victor leaves his family in Geneva to attend the university at Ingolstadt. Just before Victor departs, his mother catches scarlet fever from Elizabeth, whom she has been nursing back to health, and dies. On her deathbed, she begs Elizabeth and Victor to marry. Several weeks later, still grieving, Victor goes off to Ingolstadt. Arriving at the university, he finds quarters in the town and sets up a meeting with a professor of natural philosophy, M. Krempe. Krempe tells Victor that all the time that Victor has spent studying the alchemists has been wasted, further souring Victor on the study of natural philosophy. He then attends a lecture in chemistry by a professor named Waldman. This lecture, along with a subsequent meeting with the professor, convinces Victor to pursue his studies in the sciences. Analysis: Preface and Letters 1–4 The preface to Frankenstein sets up the novel as entertainment, but with a serious twist—a science fiction that nonetheless captures â€Å"the truth of the elementary principles of human nature.† The works of Homer, Shakespeare, and Milton are held up as shining examples of the kind of work Frankenstein aspires to be. Incidentally, the reference to â€Å"Dr. Darwin† in the first sentence is not to the famous evolutionist Charles Darwin, who was seven years old at the time the novel was written, but to his grandfather, the biologist Erasmus Darwin. In addition to setting the scene for the telling of the stranger’s narrative, Walton’s letters introduce an important character—Walton himself—whose story parallels Frankenstein’s. The second letter introduces the idea of loss and loneliness, as Walton complains that he has no friends with whom to share his triumphs and failures, no sensitive ear to listen to his dreams and ambitions. Walton turns to the stranger as the friend he has always wanted; his search for companionship, and his attempt to find it in the stranger, parallels the monster’s desire for a friend and mate later in the novel. This parallel between man and monster, still hidden in these early letters but increasingly clear as the novel progresses, suggests that the two may not be as different as they seem. Another theme that Walton’s letters introduce is the danger of knowledge. The stranger tells Walton, â€Å"You seek for knowledge and wisdom, as I once did; and I ardently hope that the gratification of your wishes may not be a serpent to sting you, as mine has been.† The theme of destructive knowledge is developed throughout the novel as the tragic consequences of the stranger’s obsessive search for understanding are revealed. Walton, like the stranger, is entranced by the opportunity to know what no one else knows, to delve into nature’s secrets: â€Å"What may not be expected in a country of eternal light?† he asks. Walton’s is only the first of many voices in Frankenstein. His letters set up a frame narrative that encloses the main narrative—the stranger’s—and provides the context in which it is told. Nested within the stranger’s narrative are even more voices. The use of multiple frame narratives calls attention to the telling of the story, adding new layers of complexity to the already intricate relationship between author and reader: as the reader listens to Victor’s story, so does Walton; as Walton listens, so does his sister. By focusing the reader’s attention on narration, on the importance of the storyteller and his or her audience, Shelley may have been trying to link her novel to the oral tradition to which the ghost stories that inspired her tale belong. Within each framed narrative, the reader receives constant reminders of the presence of other authors and audiences, and of perspective shifts, as Victor breaks out of his narrative to address Walton directly and as Walton signs off each of his letters to his sister. Analysis: Chapters 1–2 The picture that Victor draws of his childhood is an idyllic one. Though loss abounds—the poverty of Beaufort and the orphaning of Elizabeth, for instance—it is always quickly alleviated by the presence of a close, loving family. Nonetheless, the reader senses, even in these early passages, that the stability and comfort of family are about to be exploded. Shining through Victor’s narration of a joyful childhood and an eccentric adolescence is a glimmer of the great tragedy that will soon overtake him. Women in Frankenstein fit into few roles: the loving, sacrificial mother; the innocent, sensitive child; and the concerned, confused, abandoned lover. Throughout the novel, they are universally passive, rising only at the most extreme moments to demand action from the men around them. The language Victor uses to describe the relationship between his mother and father supports this image of women’s passivity: in reference to his mother, he says that his fathe r â€Å"came as a protecting spirit to the poor girl, who committed herself to his care.† Elizabeth, Justine Moritz, and Caroline Beaufort all fit into this mold of the passive woman.Various metanarrative comments (i.e., remarks that pertain not to the content of the narrative but rather to the telling of the narrative) remind the reader of the fact that Victor’s narrative is contained within Walton’s. Victor interrupts his story to relate how Elizabeth became a part of his family, prefacing the digression with the comment, â€Å"But before I continue my narrative, I must record an incident.† Such guiding statements structure Victor’s narrative and remind the reader that Victor is telling his story to a specific audience—Walton. Foreshadowing is ubiquitous in these chapters and, in fact, throughout the novel. Even Walton’s letters prepare the way for the tragic events that Victor will recount. Victor constantly alludes to his imminent doom; for example, he calls his interest in natural philosophy â€Å"the genius that has regulated my fate† and â€Å"the fatal impulse that led to my ruin.† Victor’s narrative is rife with nostalgia for a happier time; he dwells on the fuzzy memories of his blissful childhood with Elizabeth, his father and mother, and Henry Clerval. But even in the midst of these tranquil childhood recollections, he cannot ignore the signs of the tragedy that lies in his imminent future; he sees that each event, such as the death of his mother, is nothing but â€Å"an omen, as it were, of [his] future misery.† This heavy use of foreshadowing has a dual effect. On the one hand, it adds to the suspense of the novel, leaving the reader wondering about the nature of the awful tragedy that has caused Victor so much grief. On the other hand, it drains away some of the suspense—the reader knows far ahead of time that Victor has no hope, that all is doomed. Words like â€Å"fate,† â€Å"fatal,† and â€Å"omen† reinforce the inevitability of Victor’s tragedy, suggesting not only a sense of resignation but also, perhaps, an attempt by Victor to deny responsibility for his own misfortune. Describing his decision to study chemistry, he says, â€Å"Thus ended a day memorable to me; it decided my future destiny.† Summary: Chapter 4 Victor attacks his studies with enthusiasm and, ignoring his social life and his family far away in Geneva, makes rapid progress. Fascinated by the mystery of the creation of life, he begins to study how the human body is built (anatomy) and how it falls apart (death and decay). After several years of tireless work, he masters all that his professors have to teach him, and he goes one step further: discovering the secret of life. Privately, hidden away in his apartment where no one can see him work, he decides to begin the construction of an animate creature, envisioning the creation of a new race of wonderful beings. Zealously devoting himself to this labor, he neglects everything else—family, friends, studies, and social life—and grows increasingly pale, lonely, and obsessed. Summary: Chapter 5 One stormy night, after months of labor, Victor completes his creation. But when he brings it to life, its awful appearance horrifies him. He rushes to the next room and tries to sleep, but he is troubled by nightmares about Elizabeth and his mother’s corpse. He wakes to discover the monster looming over his bed with a grotesque smile and rushes out of the house. He spends the night pacing in his courtyard. The next morning, he goes walking in the town of Ingolstadt, frantically avoiding a return to his now-haunted apartment. As he walks by the town inn, Victor comes across his friend Henry Clerval, who has just arrived to begin studying at the university. Delighted to see Henry—a breath of fresh air and a reminder of his family after so many months of isolation and ill health—he brings him back to his apartment. Victor enters first and is relieved to find no sign of the monster. But, weakened by months of work and shock at the horrific being he has created, he immediately falls ill with a nervous fever that lasts several months. Henry nurses him back to health and, when Victor has recovered, gives him a letter from Elizabeth that had arrived during his illness. Analysis: Chapters 3–5 Whereas the first two chapters give the reader a mere sense of impending doom, these chapters depict Victor irrevocably on the way to tragedy. The creation of the monster is a grotesque act, far removed from the triumph of scientific knowledge for which Victor had hoped. His nightmares reflect his horror at what he has done and also serve to foreshadow future events in the novel. The images of Elizabeth â€Å"livid with the hue of death† prepare the reader for Elizabeth’s eventual death and connect it, however indirectly, to the creation of the monster. Victor’s pursuit of scientific knowledge reveals a great deal about his perceptions of science in general. He views science as the only true route to new knowledge: â€Å"In other studies you go as far as others have gone before you, and there is nothing more to know; but in scientific pursuit there is continual food for discovery and wonder.† Walton’s journey to the North Pole is likewise a search f or â€Å"food for discovery and wonder,† a step into the tantalizing, dark unknown. The symbol of light, introduced in Walton’s first letter (â€Å"What may not be expected in a country of eternal light?†), appears again in Victor’s narrative, this time in a scientific context. â€Å"From the midst of this darkness,† Victor says when describing his discovery of the secret of life, â€Å"a sudden light broke in upon me—a light so brilliant and wondrous.† Light reveals, illuminates, clarifies; it is essential for seeing, and seeing is the way to knowledge. Just as light can illuminate, however, so can it blind; pleasantly warm at moderate levels, it ignites dangerous flames at higher ones. Immediately after his first metaphorical use of light as a symbol of knowledge, Victor retreats into secrecy and warns Walton of â€Å"how dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge.† Thus, light is balanced always by fire, the promise of new discovery by the danger of unpredictable—and perhaps tragic—consequences. The theme of secrecy manifests itself in these chapters, as Victor’s studies draw him farther and farther away from those who love and advise him. He conducts his experiments alone, following the example of the ancient alchemists, who jealously guarded their secrets, and rejecting the openness of the new sciences. Victor displays an unhealthy obsession with all of his endeavors, and the labor of creating the monster takes its toll on him. It drags him into charnel houses in search of old body parts and, even more important, isolates him from the world of open social institutions. Though Henry’s presence makes Victor become conscious of his gradual loss of touch with humanity, Victor is nonetheless unwilling to tell Henry anything about the monster. The theme of secrecy transforms itself, now linked to Victor’s shame an d regret for having ever hoped to create a new life. Victor’s reaction to his creation initiates a haunting theme that persists throughout the novel—the sense that the monster is inescapable, ever present, liable to appear at any moment and wreak havoc. When Victor arrives at his apartment with Henry, he opens the door â€Å"as children are accustomed to do when they expect a specter to stand in waiting for them on the other side,† a seeming echo of the tension-filled German ghost stories read by Mary Shelley and her vacationing companions. As in the first three chapters, Victor repeatedly addresses Walton, his immediate audience, reminding the reader of the frame narrative and of the multiple layers of storytellers and listeners. Structuring comments such as â€Å"I fear, my friend, that I shall render myself tedious by dwelling on these preliminary circumstances† both remind the reader of the target audience (Walton) and help indicate the relative importance of each passage. Shelley employs other literary devices from time to time, including apostrophe, in which the speaker addresses an inanimate object, absent person, or abstract idea. Victor occasionally addresses some of the figures from his past as if they were with him on board Walton’s ship. â€Å"Excellent friend!† he exclaims, referring to Henry. â€Å"How sincerely did you love me, and endeavor to elevate my mind, until it was on a level with your own.† Apostrophe was a favorite of Mary Shelley’s husband, Percy Bysshe Shelley, who used it often in his poetry; its occurrence here might reflect some degree of Percy’s influence on Mary’s writing.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Birth Control An Effective Means Of Preventing Pregnancy

Introduction Birth control is becoming a very controversial topic in today’s society. Although some forms of birth control have been around for thousands of years, those that are most familiar to us have been practiced since the late 1950’s. People’s views and beliefs on birth control have changed dramatically. According to the Birth control pill facts sheet, â€Å"About five women out of the one hundred using this method for one year will get pregnant† (2014, p. 4). This illustrates that although birth control is an effective means of preventing pregnancy, it is not 100% effective. In this paper I will discuss the different types of birth control and statistics related to birth control. I will also discuss different positive and negative impacts that birth control can have on women. Past and present views and recent laws on birth control will also be covered in this paper. Description of the Topic I Chose Current birth control methods have been around for 50 plus years and during this time frame, the different types of birth control have evolved and changed. In the article written by George T. Krucik (2013), he lists â€Å"12 of the most popular birth control methods, which includes: Hormonal Intrauterine Device (IUD), Copper Intrauterine Device (IUD), the Implant, the Shot, the Pill, Contraceptive Vaginal Ring, Contraceptive Patch, Morning-After Pill, Diaphragm, Male Condom, Female Condom, and lastly the Contraceptive sponge† (p. 1-7). Both the Hormonal Intrauterine Device andShow MoreRelatedPersuasive Essay On Birth Control1288 Words   |  6 Pagesteens can receive birth control. For many parents, this term conjures up images of teenage sex or pregnancy, which can cause them to ignore its other uses. However, birth control is a broad and misrepresented topic. Students should not be denied access to something that could help their health due to their parents’ aversion to contraceptives. Birth control has many more uses than commonly known. There are physical forms of birth control for the prevention of STDs and pregnancy as well as many typesRead MoreThe Issues Associated With Women s Rights1377 Words   |  6 Pagespay, reproductive rights, etc.(Legal Dictionary) birth control is to control of the number of children or offspring born especially by preventing or lessening the frequency of conception. (Merriam-Webster) The government should continue to allow women access to contraceptives because it reduces abortion, benefit to women, and prevents unwanted pregnancies. In the United States more than 90 percent of abortions occur because of unintended pregnancies. A study named the Contraceptive Choice ProjectRead MoreBirth Control Access to Teens1463 Words   |  6 PagesFormal Outline Topic: Birth control access to teenage girls Thesis statement: Although teenage girls are prohibited from purchasing birth control, laws should be implemented to allow access to birth control as a means of managing safer sex, preventing the health risks and guarding them from the cycle of poverty. 1. Reasons for not allowing birth control to be given to teenagers A. It encourages sexual activity (Sex with many partners -promiscuity) B. Abstinence should be promoted Read MoreAbstinence Essay 41619 Words   |  7 PagesAbstinence Abstinence is the only form of birth control that is 100% effective – in both preventing pregnancies and most sexually transmitted infections. If you choose to be abstinent, then you have decided not to have any type of sexual relations. Learn some of the reasons why people choose to abstain as well as the benefits from this behavior. Discover the difference between continuous and complete abstinence. Read advice on how to stay abstinent and when to make the decision about using abstinenceRead MoreAn Effective Type Of Birth Control1465 Words   |  6 PagesAccording to a study done by CNN, as many as one in eight teens within the United States have taken the virginity pledge (Tamkins, 2008). This means that they took the opportunity and are making a written or verbal commitment and promising to refrain from sexual activities until marriage. But officially, the virginity pledge states that â€Å"Believing that true love waits, I make a commitment to God, myself, my family, m y friends, my future mate and my future children to be sexually abstinent from thisRead MoreTeen Pregnancy Rates Have Reached An All Time High1565 Words   |  7 PagesDid you know that today teen pregnancy rates have reached an all-time high in the United States? According to a healthcare organization called, Family Planning Plus, about 750,000 American teenage girls get pregnant annually, to date. In consequence, high schools around the country have taken a decision to step up and take an action in decreasing the rate of teen pregnancy. Becoming a parent permanently and profoundly alters a teenager s life. Most of the girls forget about their dreams of happyRead MoreWhy Birth Control Should Be Taught in Schools697 Words   |  3 PagesThe majority of adults may find abstinence only education appropriate but, birth control must be taught in schools. Schools should teach about birth control because students will have a better understanding how birth control works and it would dec rease unwanted pregnancy in the future. â€Å"I know abstinence is the only 100 percent way of preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases† said Debbie Sandland. ( Day, Brenda 1) This is an example that the majority of adults prefer abstinence onlyRead MoreSex Is Best Described As A Dangerous Liaison1443 Words   |  6 Pagespercent of Sweden, and 6 percent of Kenya is sexually active. Consequences vary from sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, genital herpes, or HPV, to teen pregnancies. Thankfully, there are several precautions any individual can take in order to avoid these adverse results. These precautions differ from condoms, to birth control, to the simplest of all—simply waiting till the right time to participate in intercourse. When these precautions are not taken and consequences do come as a resultRead MoreShould Abstinence Only Sex Education?928 Words   |  4 Pageseighth grade, I remember attending a sex education course. At the young impressionable age of fourteen, I l istened quietly as the lecturer showed us grotesque pictures of sexually transmitted infections and warned us that abstinence was the only effective way to not get pregnant. At the end of lecture, everyone at the assembly was handed a little card that read, â€Å"Virginity Pledge† and we were all required to sign them. Looking back on this memory, I am appalled by the severe lack of scientific foundationRead MoreSince The Rate Of Unwanted Teenage Pregnancies Has Been1676 Words   |  7 PagesSince the rate of unwanted teenage pregnancies has been steadily decreasing over the past forty years (Patten, 2016), many young women will not be faced with the difficult challenges and life-altering decisions that a pregnant teen is presented with. However, of those teenage women who do face the burden of an unforeseen pregnancy, many come to realize how simple preventative measures could have saved them from having to deal with the social, financial, and psychological difficulties cau sed by an